体征监测原理之BCG Vs HRV

BCG(心冲击图)
1.什么是BCG?
心冲击图 (BCG,ballistocardiography)是一种无创、无接触、便利式的心血管功能监测手段。每当心脏跳动时,血液的t加速会产生机械冲击波,心脏射血时人体的重力会发生变化。达到医疗级别准确性的DARMA光纤传感器可以捕捉到射血时引起的重力变化信号,从而形成心冲击图。
2.BCG可以做什么?
研究表明心冲击图可以应用在心率检测、心率变异性监测 、心脏收缩性以及心输出量变化等方面;BCG在心脏疾病、心衰等方面也有潜在的应用价值。

HRV(心率变异性)

1.什么是HRV?
心率变异性(HRV,heart rate variability)指的是心率节奏快慢随时间所发生的变化,是一种分析逐次窦性心率差异的方法。HRV是反映自主神经系统活性和定量评估心脏交感神经与迷走神经张力及其平衡性,从而判断其对心血管疾病的病情及预防。
HRV的数值越大,康复和休息的越好,也越健康。如左图所示,心率同为60的两位成年人,用户B的HRV数值比用户A的要大,说明用户B比用户A要健康。

2.如何得到HRV?

1)ECG(心电图) 2)BCG( 心冲击图) 3)PPG(光体积描记器) HRV的方法可以通过计算ECG、BCG和PPG的心动周期间隔得到,其间隔分别是通过RR间期、JJ间期和PP间期获取。通过记录间期序列,计算变异性,从而得到HRV。
其中ECG是指心脏在每个心动周期中,由起搏点、心房、心室相继兴奋,伴随着心电图生物电的变化,通过心电描记器从体表引出多种形式的电位变化的图形;PPG是借助光电手段在活体组织中检测血液容积变化的一种无创检测方法。当一定波长的光束照射到指端皮肤表面时,光束将通过透射或反射方式传送到光电接收器。

3.HRV可以做什么?

HRV可用于压力康复,通过分析心脏每次跳动时的差距,及时得到健康反馈信息。HRV的数值越大,康复和休息的越好,也越健康。研究表明心率变异性还可以应用到冠心病、高血压和心力衰竭检测上。特别是心血管疾病的预后持续监测,通过掌握心脏的变化情况来防止再次恶化的发生。如下图所示,通过采集BCG中的JJ间期数据(或是ECG中的RR间期,以及PPG中的PP间期),经过做图得到心率散点图,从而可宏观判断窦性心率、室上性和室性心率失常。

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